Database management is a system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failure It’s a component of a company’s total informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of tables that arrange data according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model, designed by E. F. «Ted» Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to modify several databases.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on costs, scalability and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of external views based on different data models and could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.